Adair County Cooperative Extension Service

Ingredient Substitutions and Food Yields

Prepared by: Barbara Brown, Food Specialist

Can you answer the following questions?

  • How many cups of grated cheese are in a one-pound block?
  • If a recipe calls for three cups of cooked rice, how many cups of uncooked rice should be prepared?
  • How many cups of nutmeg are in a one-pound package?

These and many questions can be answered by this handy chart on food yeilds.  Keep it nearby when preparing a meal or making out your shopping list.  It's a real timesaver!!!

INGREDIENT AMOUNT SUBSTITUTIONS
Allspice 1 t
1/2 t cinnamon and 1/2 t ground cloves

Arrowroot Starch
1 1/2 t
1 T Flour
1 1/2 t cornstarch

Bay Leaf

1 whole

1/4 t crushed

Broth,
beef or chicken
1 Cup



1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 envelope powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 t powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

 Catsup  1 Cup  
1 C tomatoe sauce 1/2 t sugar and
2 T vinegar (for cooking)
 Chicken stock
base, instant
 
1 T dissolved
in 1 C water
 1 C canned/homemade chicken broth/chicken stock
 
Chives,
finely chopped
 2 t  
2 t green onion tops, finely chopped
 Apple Pie Spice  1 t  
1/2 t cinnamon, 1/4 t nutmeg
1/8 t cardamon

 Baking Powder

 1 t



-1/3 t baking soda and 1/2 t cream of tartar
-1/4 t baking soda, 1/2 C sour milk or buttermilk
(decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 C)
-1/4 t baking soda, 1/2 T vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 C
(decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 C)
 Beau Monde
Seasoning
 1 t  
-1 t seasoning or seasoned salt, 1/2 t table salt, 1/2 t Mei yen seasoning
 Butter  1 C
 -7/8 to 1 C hydrogenated fat, a1/2 t salt
-7/8 C lard plus 1/2 t salt
-1 C margarine
 Chili Sauce  1 C  
1 C tomato sauce, 1/4 C brown sugar, 2 T vinegar, 1/4 t cinnamon, dash of ground cloves and allspice
 Chocolate Chips
  Semisweet
 1 oz.
 1 oz. sweet cooking chocolate
 Chocolate
  Semisweet
 1 2/3 oz.
 1 oz. unsweetened chocolate and 4 t sugar
 Chocolate
 Unsweetened
 1 oz or square  
3 T cocoa and 1 T fat
 Coconut  1 T grated, dry  
1 1/2 T fresh coconut, grated
 Coconut Milk  1 C 1 C whole or 2% milk
 Dill plant
Fresh/dried
 3 heads  1 tablespoon dill seed
 Egg White  1 White
2 T
 
-2 T thawed frozen egg white
-2 t sifted, dry egg white powder and 2 T lukewarm water
 Flour (all purpose
for thickening)
 1 T  
-1 1/2 t cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch or rice starch
-1 T granular tapioca
-1 T waxy rice flour
-1 T waxy corn flour
-2 T browned flour
-1 1/2 T whole wheat flour
-1/2 T whole egg wheat flour and 1/2 T all-purpose flour
 Flour Cake  1 C sifted  
1 C minus 2 T sifted all-purpose flour
 Flour
  Whole Wheat
 
substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of white flour called for in recipe
 Gelatin
  Flavored
 3 oz
package

1 T plain gelatine and 2 cups fruit juice
 Chocolate, semisweet
chips, melted
 6 oz package
2 squares 1/2 chocolate, 2 T shortening and 1/2 C sugar
 Cocoa  1/4 C or 4 T
1 once (square) chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 T
 Coconut Cream  1 C
1 C Whipping cream 
 Corn Syrup  1 C
-1 C sugar and 1/4 C liquied (use whatever liquids is called for in the recipe)
-1 C honey
 Egg  1 whole
3 T

-3 T and 1 t thawed frozen egg
-2 1/2 T sifted, dry whole egg powder, 2 1/2 T lukewarm water
-2 yolks and 1 T water, in cookies
-2 yolks (in custard, cream fillings and similar mixtures)
 Egg Yolk  1 Yolk
(1 1/2 T)


- 2 T sifted, dry egg yolk power and 2 t water
1 1/3 T thawed frozen egg yolk

 Flour, all-purpose
NOTE: specialty flours added to yeast bread recipes will result in reduced volume and a heavier product

 1 C sifted

 

-1 C and 2 T cake flour
-1 C minus 2 T unsifted all-purpose flour
-1 1/2 C bread crums
-1 C rolled oats
1/3 C cornmeal, bran rice flour and 2/3 C all-purpose flour
-3/4 C whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 C all-purpose flour
-1 C rye or rice flour
-1 C soybean flour and 3/4 C all-purpose flour


 Flour
  Self-rising
 1 C

 

1 C minus 2 t all-purpose flour and 1 1/2 t baking powder and 1/2 t salt

 Garlic  1 Clove, small

 1/8 t garlic powder

 Ginger 1/8 t powdered 

 1 T candied ginger rinsed

 Herbs
  fresh
 1 T finely cut

 1 t dried herbs

 Horseradish  1 T fresh  2 T bottled
 Lemon  1 Medium

 2 to 3 T juice and 1 to 2 t rind

 Macaroni
 4 C cooked

 2 C uncooked


-2 C spaghetti, uncooked
-4 C noodles, uncooked

 Maple Sugar
grated and packed
 1 C

1 T white, granulated sugar

 Mayonnaise (for salad and salad dressings  1 C

1 C plain yogurt

 Milk, buttermilk  1 C


1 C plain yogurt

 Milk, Evaported
(Whole or skim)
 1/2 C plus 1/2 C water
1 C liquid Whole milk
 Milk, skim  1/4 C
-4 t non-fat dry milk powder plus water to make 1/4 C or
follow manufacturer's direction
-2 T evaporated skim milk and 2 T water
 Honey  1 C
1 1/4 C sugar and 1/4 C liquid (use whatever liquids is called for in the recipe)
 Lemon  1 t juice  1/2 t vinegar
 Lemon peel,
  dried
 1 t
-1 to 2 t grated fresh lemon peel grated peel of 1 medium lemon
-1/2 t lemon extract
 Maple Sugar  1/2 C  1 C maple syrup

 Marshmallows,
  minature
 
1 C
10 large
 Mei Yen Seasoning  1 C  
1 t Beau Monde seasoning, 1/2 t table salt

 Milk, buttermilk or sour

 1 C


-1 C minus one T sweet milk and 1 T lemon juice or vinegar
(allow to stand 5 to 10 minutes)
-1 C sweet milk and 1 3/4 t cream of tartar
 Milk, skim  1 C  
4 to 5 T non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to  make one C or follow manufacture's directions
 Milk,
  sweetened
  condensed
 1 can or
1 1/3 C



1 Cup

Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved:
-1/3 C and 2 T evaporated milk, 1 C sugar, 3 T butter or margarine or
-1/3 C evaported milk, 3/4 C sugar, 2 T butter or margarine.
Add 1 C plus 2 T dry milk to 1/2 C warm water.  Mix well.  Add 3/4 C sugar and stir until smooth
 Milk, Whole  1 C
-1 C reconstituted non-fat dry milk and 2 t butter or margarine
-1/2 C evaported milk and 1/2 C water
-4 T whole dry milk and 1 C water or follow manufacturer's directions
-1 C fruit juice or 1 C potato water for use in baking)
-1/4 C non-fat dry milk and 2 T butter or margarine and 7/8 C water
 Mushroom,
Powdered
 1 T
-3 T whole, dried mushrooms
-4 oz fresh
-2 oz canned
 Onion, fresh  1 small
rehydrate 1 T instant minced onion
 Onion, Powder  1 T
-1 medium onion, chopped
-4 T fresh chopped onion
 Orange Peel,
 dried
 1 T
-2 to 3 T grated fresh orange peel
-greated peel of 1 medium orange

 Orange Peel,
  Fresh

 1 medium
2 to 3 T grated fresh orange peel
 Peppermint,
 dried
 1 T
1/4 C chopped fresh mint
 Pumpkin Pie
 Spice
 1 t
1/2 t cinnamon, 1/4 t ginger, 1/8 t allspice, 1/8 t nutmeg
 Rice
 3 C cooked
 1 C regular
uncooked
 
-1C uncooked converted rice
-1 C uncooked brown rice
-1 C uncooked wild rice
 Shortening
 solid (used in baking)
 1 C
-1 C minus 2 T lard
-1 1/8 C butter (decrease salt called for in recipe by 1/2 t)
-1 1/8 C margarine (decrease salt called for in recipe by 1/2 t)
Mushrooms   1 lb Fresh
-3 oz dried mushrooms
-1 10 oz can (8 oz drained weight)
 Mustard, Dry  1 t  1 T prepared mustard
 Onions, instant Minced  1 T  2 T fresh onion, chopped
 Orange  1 medium  6 to 8 T juice
 Orange peel, dried   2 t 1 t orange extract 
 Parsley, Dried  1 t  3 t fresh parsley, chopped
 Peppers
  red bell
 1 T dried
-3 T fresh red bell pepper chopped
-2 T chopped pimiento
 Pimiento  2 T Chopped
 -Rehydrate 1 T dried red bell peppers
-3 T fresh red bell pepper, chopped
 Rennet  1 T  1 T liquid rennet
 Shortening, melted  1 C  
1 C cooking oil (cooking oil should be substituted if recipe does not call for melted shortening)

 Sour Cream
  Cultured

 1 C


-3/4 C sour milk and 1/3 C butter or margarine
-3/4 C buttermilk and 1/3 C butter or margarine
-Blend until smooth: 1/3 C buttermilk, 1 T lemon juice and 1 C cottage cheese
-1 C plain yogurt
-3/4 C milk, 3/4 t lemon juice, 1/3 C butter or magarine

 Spearmint,
   Dried

 1 T
 1/4 C chopped fresh mint
 Sugar, White  1 t
1/8 t non-caloric sweetener solution or follow manufaturer's direction
 
Tapioca, granular
 1 T  2 T pearl tapioca
 
Worcestershire Sauce
 1 t
1 t bottled steak sauce
 Yogurt Plain  1 C
-1C buttermilk
-1 C cottage cheese blended until smooth
-1 C sour cream
 Sugar, Brown  1 C firmly packed
1 C granulated sugar
 Sugar, White  1 C


-1 C corn syrup (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 C)
-1 1/3 C molasses (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/3 C
-1 C powdered sugar
-1 C brown sugar, firmly packed
-1 C honey (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 C
-1/ 3/4 C confectioners sugar packed.

 Tomatoes
  Fresh
  Juice
 2 C chopped

1 C

-1 16 oz. can (may need to drain)

-1/2 C tomato sauce and 1/2 C water
 Yeast, Active Dry  1 T
-1 Cake yeast, compressed
-1 Package (1/4 oz) active dry yeast
     
     

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